One of the classic books on this expedition, and one of my favorites overall, is Noyce's South Col. In my opinion, this is one of the best "climber's eye view" in the literature. Another book worth reading is by Morris who was the correspondent for The Times assigned to the expedition. Rather than a description of the climb, it more a portrait of Nepal and the Sherpa people in the early 50's. It is a portrait such as I have not read elsewhere. A small book, but wonderful to read. While the Times had an exclusive on the story of the expedition, that didn't stop their competitor, The Daily Mail, from dispatching a correspondent to Everest.
The story of the interloper, Ralph Izzard, who was no mountaineer is told in his, An Innocent on Everest. I also think that Charles Evans' sketch book, Eye on Everest , is well worth seeking out, for its humour, as well as its sketches and cartoons. Other books relating to this climb are referenced in the table below. Another source of interest is Steele's book on Shipton, which gives a good second hand account of the expeditions immediately leading up to the expedition, and the controversy surrounding Hunt's appointment as leader over Shipton, who did not take part in the expedition but continued to provide advice.
This is an issue completely avoided in Hunt's book. How this expedition justifies three books, I have no idea. Why I have all three is even a bigger mystery. They aspire to be as much detective as climbing books, but this aspiration is somewhat diminished due to the rather shallow research that was conducted. One of the key pieces of the puzzle that helped guide the search was the ice axe of Irvine.
This had been found by Wyn Harris near the ridge, just below the First Step, during the expedition. Its discovery is described in the official account by Ruttledge , as well as in Smythe's, Camp Six. Significantly, Smythe's book includes an appendix specifically on the discovery of this axe, and what he believed it signified with respect to the fate of Mallory and Irvine.
As it turns out, through the discoveries of the expedition, Smythe's conclusions appear to have been correct insofar as Mallory's body was found where he had predicted in this appendix. That Mallory died of exposure after a fall is now clear. What caused the fall and how Irvine died, are still unsolved, and almost certainly unsolvable questions. It is virtually certain that they did not get to the summit, and fell below the First Step as suggested by Smythe.
But the discovery of Mallory is an amazing story that further supports Smythe's judgment and understanding of mountaineering. It is well written, researched, and beautifully produced. Coming back to Ghosts of Everest, The Lost Explorer , and Lost on Everest , while the expedition and its findings were interesting, they warrant criticism for a number of reasons.
Anyone trying to uncover the "mysteries" of the Mallory and Irvine should reasonably be expected to read everything from the expedition available, such as Shipton's Upon that Mountain , and especially the appendix in Smythe's Camp Six. After all, these were the first climbers on the ridge since the disappearance of Mallory and Irvine, they were climbers familiar with both Mallory and his approach to climbing, and the only people alive at the time who had first hand knowledge of the location and context.
From the perspective of history and scholarship, my view is that the specific issues analyses, conjectures, theories, etc. Yet, the only account that I found which cites, much less discusses, Smythe's Appendix, for example, is Breashears and Salkeld's Last Climb. Furthermore, my sense is that any serious analysis needs to reflect a balanced analysis of the various interpretations or possibilities that might be drawn from the data.
However, in my opinion, they are worthy of a more serious analysis and presentation. This general failure of most books on the disappearance of Mallory and Irvine suggests that, their efforts are often more of a treasure hunt, than scholarship or serious history. Hence, I have almost no interest in this huge, and growing, volume of books speculating on, and romanticizing, Mallory and Irvine. Now, if one does wants to find controversy, then a much better place to find it is in the American expedition of , which is covered in Ullman's Americans on Everest. The story of the other half of this expedition, the ascent via the easier South Col route which resulted in the first American ascent by Jim Whittaker is described in Whittaker's autobiography , a somewhat disappointing book in terms of the little light that it sheds on the climb.
For something completely different, there is Miura and Perlman's account of Miura's attempt to ski straight down the Lhoste face. He fell most of the way, and yet lived to tell about it. To me, this expedition, and the resulting book and film constitute some kind of bizarre cultural artifact that just makes me shake my head in bewilderment. In some ways the book is worth reading just to have it reaffirmed that truth is stranger than fiction. Clicking on the link will take you to the full citation and a summary.
The format that I have followed is based on Neate Walker a , Freshfield , Walker b. Bruce and Younghusband first suggest mounting expedition to explore Everest. Bruce , Younghusband Rawling leads survey of region north of Everest. Noel , Kellas publishes study on feasibility of climbing higher Himalayan peaks. Kellas British Climbing Expedition. Younghusband Boustead , Greene , Longland , Shipton , , , Smythe , , , Tharkay Fellowes et al Roberts Hanson , Russell n.
Shipton , Astill Ruttledge Snaith , Ullman Hagen et al. Secret flight over mountain by K. D Neame, RAF. Anglo-American expedition, led by Oscar Houston. Cowles , Tilman Becker-Larsen Bryant , Hillary , , , Murray , , Sale Shipton , , , , Temple , Ward , Tharkay Spring Swiss Expedition, led by E.
Dittert et al Unsubstantiated and suspect Russian attempt from the north in fall. Gippenreiter , Kurz Band , Shipton , Venables , Ward In marked contrast, in terms of mountaineering, is Bonington's Everest the Hard Way , a wonderful book describing the British expedition that made the first ascent of the South West Face.
In terms of spectacular ascents of the mountain, few can compete with Messner's solo climb of the north face, without supplemental oxygen, described in The Crystal Horizon: Everest - The First Solo Ascent. This book is extremely wellwritten. It is also very well researched, in that it goes beyond the obvious, "we climbed it, and here's how" type of account. It gives a great deal of background on the mountain, as well as Tibet and the route in.
This expedition was interesting for its light style, climbing without Sherpa support, not taking the standard route, and for getting the first North American woman, Sharon Wood to the summit. Perhaps the most remarkable verging on insane expedition was the four climber oxygenless ascent of the East Kangshung Face in , which is described by Venables in Everest Kangshung Face. This is also highly recommended. Another account of this climb, with fantastic photos, can be found in Webster's Snow in the Kingdom.
The following is a table covering the literature on Everest from the period leading up to the first British expedition in , to the first ascent in The table is based on that in Neate's, Mountaineering and its Literature. I have added additional references to his, I now have all of the referenced books in my collection. I have followed Neate's format in making the table, except that I use the first author's name, rather than a number, as the reference.
Clicking on the reference will take you to the full citation and annotation in my bibliography. Books associated with more than a single expediton are indicated by the entry in the "Year" column showing a range e. Note that the definitive bibliography on Everest, up to , is the little known, but extremely well prepared, Climbing Mount Everest: The Bibliography , by Salkeld and Boyle.
For a more recent bibliography covering climbs up to , with a focus just on books rather than periodicals, etc. The following table carried on from the previous one. However, it is incomplete, and has the narrow intent of simply cataloguing the books in my collection by expedition, more-or-less following the table format used by Neate.
Only post expeditions are included below. Ullman , Hornbein , Whittaker. Venables , Webster. Coburn , Breashears , Norgay. Hemmleb , Firstbrook, Anker. Discussion about what happened on Everest in the spring of Everest has become almost as banal as it is tiresome. This is largely a result of the popularity of Krakauer's Into Thin Air. If only he wasn't such a good writer! The good news is that he draws so many people into the mountaineering literature. But then, that is also the bad news. Everyone is an expert and has an opinion, few have any practical mountaineering experience to back up their opinions, and many of these opinions are heavily biased due to Krakauer's compelling prose.
My argument is not against armchair mountaineers, which would largely include myself. Rather, it is the lack of inquiry that seems to accompany this lack of on-mountain experience. Partially due to the success of Krakauer's book, and partially due to the compelling nature of the events that took place, there are a number of other books that deal with the events of the spring of , most of which were like that of Krakauer written by people who were there. The bad news is that none of them are written as well as his, so opinion is partially shaped by the best writing rather than by the best analysis which may well be that of Krakauer, but it would be nice if this was due to a balanced evaluation of the content of the various stories rather than the form and style.
To be fair to Krakauer, he is not only the best writer of the lot, he is also the most experienced journalist, so it is not just the quality of his prose that has given his version the weight that it has assumed. Taken collectively, these books resemble Kurosawa's classic film Rashomon which examines the accounts of an event as recounted by a number of witnesses, each of whom has their own perspective and vested interest.
If there is a villain in Krakauer's version, it is Boukreev, the star guide on the Scott Fischer team. This is pretty compelling, and it is rare to see a book which is so pointedly directed at countering the opinions real and imagined articulated in another. And, just to make thing more interesting, the newer Illustrated Edition of Into Thin Air has a postscript that addresses some of the arguments made in The Climb.
Having read both The Climb and Into Thin Air, one will be of a very different state of opinion than if one read just one or the other. Confused might be the most likely state, which is all the more reason to dig deeper. Why not? What could be better than when scholarship and one's interest merge? Gammelgaard's book, while painful to read at times, in some ways is one of the best. Like Krakauer, Gammelgaard presents the view of one of the clients, and a relatively experienced one, at that.
What I like about this book is its perspective on that seldom discussed concept: responsibility. Between the new age views, and all-too-sensitive diary entries, Gammelgaard actually addresses the issues at a reasonable level of abstraction. She is explicit in terms of articulating the philosophy of guiding as exemplified by Boukreev vs. Hall, and gives some pretty compelling arguments on the side of the Boukreev school of thought.
Essentially, she is of the view that at this level, the role of the guide is to teach you to look after yourself, not to hold your hand. The underlying rationale is that when not if thing go wrong and you are on your own, if you are used to relying on your guide rather than yourself, you will be unprepared. From this perspective, an overly attentive guide is a danger not an asset unless the guide can guarantee to be always there and able, which - of course - they cannot do.
In many ways, this analysis rings more true coming from a client and near-victim, than from Boukreev himself. He obviously had a more vested interest. It is pretty hard to discount the views of someone with the strength of spirit to survive despite being left for dead 3 times.
A couple things are pretty interesting in this. One is the view that comes out in both the interview and the book, that there was a "them and us" thing going on on the mountain. That is, he seems to say in both the book and the DVD interview that the Fischer crew looked after their own, and left the Hall clients to their own devices all of the Fischer team survived, other than Fischer himself.
Nobody else suggests this, so it stood out pretty strongly to me. It is interesting, since as far as I can see, the behaviour of members of Hall's team towards Weathers after his first "resurrection" appears pretty shoddy, and this very much includes Krakauer, who was Weathers team-mate, and yet left him in a tent to die alone. But this is likely too simple of an analysis. However, the events around this incident alone should make it clear that Into Thin Air is "a" story, perhaps a "good" story, but not "the" story or the "only" story.
The Australian Mike Groom was one of the three guides for the Rob Hall team, and his experience is documented in a chapter of his climbing biography, Sheer Will. In some ways, Groom is self critical, especially in not having double checked on Andy Harris before descending from the South Summit. However, he seems to have handled things rather well on the mountain, in particular in terms of Beck Weathers and Yasuka Namba. He only talks about what he personally experienced, rather than trying to give the whole story. In some ways, he tells more in doing so. For example, from reading Krakauer, one might easily get the impression that the members of the Fischer and Hall teams knew each other.
Reading Groom, it is clear that they did not. What Groom does not provide is any analysis or thoughts about the underlying decisions or actions on the climb. He states, for example, that the Hall and Fischer teams decided to team up on summit day to form a "powerful force trail breaking to the summit He states that "We planned to keep our eight climbers, three guides and five Sherpa within a distance of metres from front to back" which, seems a surprising thing, given the individual differences in ability and fitness of the team, especially at that altitude.
And he clearly states that the turn-around time was pm, and yet makes no comment when he describes discussions with Hall who was still ascending at pm. From the experience and perspective of a guide, one would hope for more insight. From a human being, I guess I understand. While Simpson was not on Everest that spring, he has somewhat earned the right to comment on issues around the ethics of leaving people to die on mountains, given his own experience that he recounts in Touching the Void.
His writing on these events is pretty interesting, although, in my opinion, his perspective on events is perhaps too strongly shaped by Krakauer's account.
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He emphatically makes the point that even if you feel that you cannot do anything to keep someone alive, if you can, you should at least do your best so that they are not left to die alone. Kropp, who was conducting his own expedition-of-one on the mountain while all of this was going on, represents the exact opposite of what Krakauer perhaps unfairly characterized as guided adventure tourists. His philosophy of climbing reflects his extreme definition of "fair means" which dictates that he must carry everything to and up the mountain himself, and accept no outside help.
One could only wish that his talents as a writer matched the quality of his spirit and expedition. For contrast, contempt, and another view from those on the mountain, the accounts of two other expeditions are pretty interesting. The other is that of the South African expedition, led by Ian Woodall. This expedition is described in two books, both hard to find. While essentially a climbing autobiography, the Breashears book spends a significant amount of space on the IMAX expedition.
Both Breashears and Coburn comment on what was going on on Everest, and especially on the evacuation of Weathers. Their ethics in this regard were exemplary. They risked their entire expedition to help, regrouped, and then went on to do the seeming impossible - getting an IMAX camera onto the summit and shooting some remarkable footage. Then there was the South African expedition. From Krakauer's telling, among others, one comes away with the impression that this was one of the most divisive and incompetent expedition to ever attempt the mountain, and that the expedition leader, Woodall, must be the biggest jerk that ever picked up an ice axe.
What does emerge is a strong sense that Woodall just seems to be someone who polarizes opinion. This is why the second book, by O'Dowd, is so interesting. Unlike the earlier book, this one addresses the conflicts within the team and with other teams. If nothing else, it is a pretty interesting portrait of human behaviour and responses. I talk about Woodall and Breashears together largely out of mischief. Based on their written comments, it is hard to imagine greater mutual contempt.
But despite what one might think of the other, it is hard to reconcile the statements, such as by Coburn, about Woodall's unwillingness to assist on the South Col, with the account by O'Dowd, that the South Africans provided radio communications during the storm, radio batteries for the New Zealand team, and that Woodall made two forays onto the col during the storm, where it is claimed that he encountered Neil Laughton, of the Henry Todd team, on one trip, and Stuart Hutchison, of Rob Hall's team, on another. Where the truth about the South African lies is hard to determine.
But people's lives were at stake, and this was not a literary debate. This is brought to mind in Dickinson's The Death Zone , which is the account of his team's experience on the north side of the mountain at the same time. To me, it is interesting to contrast Dickinson's perspective regarding the fate of the 3 Indian climbers on the north side, to that expressed by Simpson in Dark Shadows Falling. I cannot help but wonder about the degree to which Dickinson's relative inexperience led to his "there was nothing that could be done" assessment of the situation.
In medicine, there is a dictum: "You are not dead until you are warm and dead. But how compelling a reason is that for leaving conscious people to die alone? Smarter and more experienced people than me hold different views on this, so I cannot claim to have any answers. In fact, none of these books gives "the answer" or "the truth". One glimpse of common sense, and which addresses some of the most prevailing myths as he describes them , is a interview with S tuart Hutchison in Explore magazine by Geoff Powter.
It may be that all of them are too soft on Hall and Fisher who are typically shouldered with the ultimate responsibility for the controllable aspects of what went on on the south side. Despite appearing to be nice guys and highly experienced, their judgment seems to have been lacking in many regards. But Stuart Hutchison points out what each mountaineer should know: ultimate responsibility for decisions rests on the shoulders of the individual climber.
In climbing as in football, it is important not to confuse arm-chair quarterbacking with the real thing, no matter how literate one might be. Strong opinions are easy to form when you have nothing a stake. But that is not to say that there is nothing to learn from reading these various accounts. It is likely never a bad thing to be reminded that there are multiple viewpoints on almost all situations.
What these books do do, is provide the catalyst for serious thought, and the opportunity to address some fairly serious issues that extend beyond mountaineering. For those who have the time, I recommend reading them all. For those who don't, I recommend Rashomon. For the true student, one should certainly do both. One of the key issues that arose in the aftermath of Everest had to do with having inexperienced climbers on the mountain. Yet, absent amongst the strong words exchanged was a small matter of history - one which I believe was both germane to the issue, and could have helped lead to a less heated, and more worthy debate.
Despite having no previous climbing experience, he was invited by his cousin, General Charles Bruce , to join the British Everest Expedition in the capacity of transportation officer and interpreter. Due to a range of circumstances, including fatigue and illness amongst the climbers, Geoffrey Bruce, along with a Gurkha NCO from his regiment, Tejbir Bura who, likewise, had no previous climbing experience , joined George Finch on a push from base camp on an attempt to get as high as possible - hopefully the summit.
The three pushed above the North Col towards the north shoulder, where a storm forced them to camp. The next day they proceeded, however Tejbir turned back to the last camp due to fatigue, while Finch and Bruce continued using supplemental oxygen. In their push they reached 8, metres, which exceeded the previous high point which had been reached by Mallory, Norton and Somervell without supplementary oxygen. Hence, they set a new world altitude record - and did so on Bruce's first climb! Bruce was subsequently invited to join the expedition, but this time in the joint capacity of Transportation Officer and Climber.
If one argues points in terms of black and white, there is a reasonable argument to be made that one has to draw one of two conclusions. Either, Finch was as irresponsible in taking Tejbir Bura and Geoffrey Bruce onto the mountain, as were any of the guides on Everest. That seems especially so since I have seen no claims that any of the clients in had no previous experience.
Alternatively, one has to acknowledge that the issue is not black-or-white, and is therefore worthy of a much more considered discussion. For me, the take-away lesson is that if an issue is important enough to argue strongly, then it is also important enough to research so that it can be discussed from the most informed position possible. One of the great things about mountain culture is the breadth and depth of its literature, and access to it.
This example suggests to me that too few are availing themselves of that literature before leaping into the fray with strong, inflexible opinions. The literature is just one source - deep experience being another. But especially without either or both, it strikes me that we would all be better off if we entered conversations with a bit less hubris, and certainty in our positions, and instead, did more listening, and were open to actually learning — something that I believe holds regardless on which side of the issue one is on.
While I might be wrong, I am nevertheless, also listening. Another reference if you are interested in the views of some of the participants is the following Mountainzone web sites:. This climb was remarkable for a number of reasons, mostly to do with style:. To make this expedition all the more remarkable, Markus Schmuck and Fritz Wintersteller followed their ascent of Broad Peak with a flash ascent of a nearby mountain, Skil Brum 7, m , which they climbed in pure alpine style.
Starting from base camp at 4, metres, they climbed to 6, metres where they camped. The following day they summited and then returned to their high camp. They descended the next morning. From all of the above, this expedition was a wonderful precursor of the new style that what was to follow, such as that exemplified in the climbs of Messner and Habeler. But there was a dark side to this expedition. It suffered from interpersonal difficulties.
By the time of the second successful summit attempt, the members were no longer climbing as a team of four, but as two teams of two: Schmuck and Wintersteller, and Buhl and Diemberger. Further, following the ascent of Skil Brum by Schmuck and Wintersteller, Buhl and Diemberger made an alpine-style attempt on Chogolisa 7, m.
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It was on this attempt that Buhl was killed. Buxton, William Broad Peak and the Austrian Karakoram Expedition. Canadian Alpine Journal , 89, A video interview that I conducted with the expedition's Pakistani liasion officer, Qader Saeed, can be found here:. As the first mountain over 8, metres that was climbed, Annapurna is a special mountain. The first ascent was made in by a French team. This latter is the largest selling mountaineering book of all time.
It is a gripping story, and extremely well written. The problem is, the accuracy of the story that it tells has recently been questioned by Roberts in hisbook, True Summit - What Really Happened on the Legendary Ascent of Annapurna. In his book, Herzog described a heroic adventure by a team unified by a common goal. But Roberts contradicts this characterization of the expedition. A good example that he cites occurred at the airport right at the point of departure.
After all the preparations, and without any advance notice, Herzog sprung an agreement on the team members compelling them not to write about the expedition for 5 years. The agreement also required them to hand over all diaries and photos at the expedition's end. The penalty for not signing was not traveling. Remember, this was at the airport! Herzog was to have sole control over the story and how it was told. Likewise, in the aftermath of the climb, the team ethic described in the book, was belied by Herzog's behaviour.
Far from promoting the team, the book notwithstanding, Herzog ended up receiving the bulk of the credit. Others, especially Lachenal, who also made the summit, were left in relative obscurity, while Herzog parlayed his celebrity into a very successful career in politics and business. For him the loss of his toes and fingers was worth it. Lachenal, who summitted with Herzog, wanted to turn back on summit day.
He continued to the summit due to his ethics as a guide. Herzog would not turn back, and if left to continue alone, Lachenal was convinced that he would die. The result of this loyalty was that, along with his toes and fingers, he lost his ability to climb, and therefore his career. Who then, is the "hero" of Annapurna? Given the stature that Herzog has assumed in the mountaineering community, it is not surprising that someone would come to his defense.
The champion that emerged was none other than Messner, by way of his recent book, Annapurna: 50 Years of Expeditions in the Death Zone. Unfortunately for "Mr. Annapurna, " the title bestowed on Herzog by Messner, this is a hastily written and poorly argued defense. Yes, Herzog and Lachenal got to the top and back. And, as Messner argues, they would not have done so were it not for the determination of Herzog. But the question that is begged is, "Was it worth it?
Messner clearly believes that it is, even while making clear that Herzog went too far. If the consequences affected only Herzog, then it would be easy to agree with Messner. But by his behaviour, Herzog compelled Lachenal to also suffer the consequences. But while Herzog was in some way compensated for his losses, Lachenal was not. For all intents and purposes, the making of Herzog's future career spelled the end of Lachenal's. As an aside, it has been argued that one of the reasons for Herzog getting the credit was the summit photo taken by Lachenal. The photo of Lachenal by Herzog was not usable.
Were this a credible explanation, it would be too ironic. But it isn't, and one need only reflect that there is no photo of Hillary, just Tenzing, on the summit of Everest, and yet we have heard of Hillary, nevertheless. If one only considers what happened on the mountain, one might again be inclined to agree with Messner. He argues that Herzog cannot be held accountable for how other people reacted to the climb, or Lachenal's choices on the mountain. Based on his actions before and after the climb, it is hard to accept Herzog's behaviour as something that happened due to the stress of being on the mountain and at altitude.
His last minute making members sign the agreement not to publish for five years and to hand over materials at the end of the expedition, as a condition of going, is one example. Note, there was little precedent for this. For example, on the British expedition to Everest in , accounts were written by not only the leader, Ruttledge, but also by Boustead , Greene , Longland , Shipton , , , Smythe , , and Tharkay.
Herzog's censoring of Lachenal's account of the climb before it was published posthumously is another example. These and other examples make clear that Herzog's behaviour was systemic, and therefore seemingly indefensible. Messner is not persuasive. However, it is still worth considering his viewpoint. His own accomplishments warrant his opinions being heard. Having heard them, I for one discard them as mainly specious.
Those interested in finding out more about other members of the French expedition, are directed to Terray's Conquistadors of the Useless , which is as brilliantly written as it is titled. It is an autobiography which includes a discussion of Annapurna, among other important climbs although do not expect any controversy from Terray's account.
This is probably my favorite mountaineering book of all time. Before leaving the topic of the ascent of Annapurna, I can't help but contrast the condition of the French team after the climb, with that of the participants of the much earlier British expeditions to Everest, such as described by Younghusband and Smythe.
In , Herzog and his team were climbing almost 30 years after the first British Everest expedition. They had the benefit of much more modern equipment, as well as the collective experience through the written accounts of seven British expeditions. Remember also, that while at 8, metres, Annapurna was the first 8, metre summit to be reached, the British had previously been significantly higher.
As early as Norton reached 8, metres on Everest without oxygen, a feat repeated by three other English climbers in Yet, unlike the British, the French were almost devastated after their climb. I think that the condition of the French team in general, and Herzog in particular, draws into question his overall judgment as opposed to his courage or determination. To be fair, there were incidences of frostbite in British expeditions.
For example, in Mallory, Norton, Somervell and Morshead all suffered frostbite. Morshead's was serious, and he lost the tips of several fingers and a toe. And, in a Sherpa lost 3 fingers. But despite inferior equipment and climbing several years earlier, there was nothing like the devastation on Annapurna. Finally, in addition to making his case about Herzog, Messner's book describes a number of important climbs of the mountain, and therefore is a valuable source of information of what happened after the French expedition.
And, this part of the book is much better written, perhaps because Messner was on much more familiar and firmer ground with this kind of writing. As for other notable climbs of the mountain, the south face expedition, led by Bonington. Annapurna South Face , was an important landmark in Himalayan climbing for its style. Also worth noting is the expedition led by Blum, Annapurna: A Woman's Place , which was a landmark in women's climbing.
As perhaps the ultimate test piece in the Alps, the north face of the Eiger has a pretty broad history andliterature. Written by one of the members of the team that made the first ascent of the north face in , Harrer's The White Spider is the definitive climbing history of the mountain. Reading it in was my introduction to mountaineering literature. An excellent companion to this is the collection of essays and photographs of the Eiger, Eiger: The Vertical Arena , edited by Daniel Anker. However, for the best photo that I have seen showing the routes on the face, see issue number 2 of The Alpinist journal www.
The second successful ascent was made in by the French team of Terray and Lachenal, who both played important roles in the first ascent of Annapurna in This climb is well documented in Terray's, Conquistadors of the Useless. Terray also had a role in another account, as one of the rescuers, of an attempt in by the accidentally combined ropes of the Italians Corti and Longhi, and the Germans, Northdurft and Mayer. All but one of the climbers died, and the saving of Corti was one of the most dramatic mountain rescues of all time.
The story of this climb is as complicated as it is fascinating. Harrer gives an account, but it leaves many questions unanswered, and by necessity, does not go into great detail. Terray's book, besides discussing his own ascent in , also includes an account of his part in the rescue. However the ultimate story of this climb is Olsen's classic The Climb up to Hell, which has recently been reissued as a paperback. For me, one of the most interesting aspects of the climbing literature is comparing different accounts of the same climb. In this regard the Eiger offers up a wonderful contrast between the 8th ascent by the "not really by choice" combined French and Austrian teams.
As stated elsewhere, I found the Buhl book a painful read in many ways, since it is more of a diary of seemingly every climb that he ever made, regardless of importance. But it is worth getting even if only to read about the Eiger and Nanga Parbat ascents. Another interesting account is that of the ascent by Diemberger and Stefan, documented in Summits and Secrets found in The Kurt Diemberger Omnibus.
Contrasting this climb with the first ascent provides a nice sense of how mountaineering had developed over the intervening 21 years. One can say the same about Hargreaves' solo ascent in , While it was not on the north face proper, it was remarkable in its speed and new line on the Lauper Face. The book is gripping in its description of this marathon effort, in which the leader, John Harlin , fell to his death. See also Haston's The Eiger , which chronicles the history of the Eiger's north face from that climb in to , when his book was published.
The literature on mountaineering and exploration in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamirs, and Hindu Kush has mostly been from the perspective of the mountaineer, or explorer, virtually all of whom were foreign to the area being described. The perspective of the indigenous people who frequently were carrying the loads, and whose lands were being explored is seldom heard. At worst, the foreigners write as if they were the only ones on the expedition.
Think about Denman titling his book, Alone to Everest , for example. He might be the only person on the planet who would consider himself alone when accompanied by Tenzing Norgay! Less extreme, but another example of the same foreigner centric perspective, is the often seen practice of reducing the natives into a generic group, rather than individuals, in photo captions e. This is not only a European and North American trait. While he gives lip service to the question of death, he neither names the Sherpa who died in the service of his expedition, nor went to their memorial service.
They are just "six Sherpa. Some of this is simple ignorance. Some of it is racism. Some of it reflects the values at the time that the accounts were written. For example, in Five Miles High , we see Houston writing about the Sherpa, "To them an attempt on a high mountains a pilgrimage and the white climber almost a holy man. While Houston's high regard for the Sherpa is made abundantly clear in other passages of the book, it is equally clear that passages such as those quoted are, on the one hand, not uncommon in the literature of the time, and on the other, impossible to imagine appearing in print today.
The times and attitudes have changed for the better - not to say that there isn't still a ways to go. What is clear, however, is that without native help and guidance, most foreign expeditions would never have accomplished what they did, and the indigenous help have generally gotten far less credit than they deserved in the aftermath. But a key reason that the native's voice, itself, has not been heard more has to do with the fact that most of them were illiterate - despite often being excellent linguists.
For the most part, they have had to rely upon others presenting their history, such as Neale's Tigers of the Snow. There are, however, a very few older books that have captured the first person stories of some of those who participated in early pioneering expeditions. These are as precious as they are interesting. This is one area of the literature where I believe that I have all of the books that have appeared.
The earliest of these is Servant of Sahibs , which is the autobiography of Ghulam Rassul Galwan. This book is unique in that it is the only one from the early period which was not an "as told to" book. They were so taken by his stories that they taught him to write English and had him write his stories and arranged for publication.
What most adds to the book is that they did not edit or correct his writing except when neccessary for understanding the text. Hence, the voice is decidedly his. This is a book which cries out to be read aloud. When one does so, the listener is transported to the campfire, where the stories were originally told. This is one of my favourite books in my entire library! Ang Tharkay was one of the most famous of the Sherpa in the early days of Himalaya mountaineering. He accompanied Shipton on no less than eight of his expeditions.
He was also sirdar on the French expedition to Annapurna , led by Herzog. Ang Tharkay was both Tenzing's landlord in the latter's early days in Darjeeling, and his climbing mentor - he hired Tenzing for his first job in the mountains. Until recently, this book has only been issued in French - it appearing in that language as a consequence of the immense interest following Annapurna - the first successful ascent of an 8, metre peak.
While the translation remains true to the original book, a Dutch friend and mountaineering historian, Bob A. Schelfhout Aubertijn and I contributed substantial end notes and after-matter, while the basic translation remains true to the original text. Third, there is Tenzing's autobiography, written with the help of James Ullman, Tiger of the Snow.
As part of the expedition led by John Hunt , Tenzing, along with Hillary , was the first to summit Everest. While Tenzing could neither read nor write, he was clearly an exceptional man, not only for his climbing, but for his character and intelligence in general. While his story has been put down on paper by Ullman, his voice and thoughts come through convincingly.
Tenzing was clearly a motivated man. He climbed and traveled in Chitral, Kashmir, Garhwal, and Tibet. Finding himself on the top of Everest was also no accident. He had been to Everest 6 times before: to the North Side in with Shipton , with Ruttledge and with Tilman. He had been to the South Side in the spring of with Swiss team led by Wyss-Dunant, and back again in the autumn on their second attempt led by Chevalley. This is a wonderful book. There is also a second autobiography by Tenzing, covering his life after Everest, which is where the autobiography with Ullman left off.
This second autobiography, After Everest , was written with Malcolm Barnes. But interwoven with this are two far more interesting stories. The first of these is a meditation on his father, to and from which the story cuts throughout. The second is a seemingly quite sincere attempt to explain Sherpa culture.
Again, this tread is woven into the book from beginning to end. This is an account of Tenzing's life, as well as profiles of a number of other Sherpa who were involved in the early expeditions. Finally, there are a few anthropological studies that, while being written by foreigners, are extremely valuable in terms of providing insights into native culture. The best is Sherry B. Ortner's work, including her study, Life and Death on Mt.
I think that Life and Death It is full of insights that significantly help one interpret the literature, especially as it concerns interactions between European mountaineers and Sherpa. See also M. Kohli's, Sherpas: The Himalayan Legends. This is an older academic study, whose primary importance is its being the first major study of the Sherpa, and the grandfather of those which have followed. One of the things that has emerged during my reading is the number of women who, while largely unheralded, were doing remarkable things, very early on. Some traveled alone, and some with male partners.
In either case, the prevailing attitudes seem to have been that if a woman did it, it must not have been difficult, or, if she did it with a man, he did all the work. Anybody reading these accounts today, who knows anything about the times and the region, can see that this is unfair. On the face of it, that Fanny Bullock Workman traveled with the Swiss guide, Zurbriggen, should not diminish her accomplishment any more than Conway 's traveling with him. In any case, the following books may help dispell any lingering impressions that some of these women deserve as much, or more, respect for their accomplishments as their male counterparts.
And in this, be very clear, I do not say so out of some sense of "political correctness. Most of the titles cited are from the late 19th century, or early 20th. However, I have included a few more recent titles such as Alison Hargreaves' book, since her accomplishments are remarkable by any standard. Annapurna: A Woman's Place. Breaking Trail. Phyllis Munday: Mountaineer. Vanished Kingdoms Janet ElliottWulsin.
My Journey to Lhasa. Mountains and Memsahibs. Hard Day's Summer. Climbing Free. A Wayfarer in China. George R. An English lady in Chinese Turkestan. Betsy Cowles Partridge: Mountaineer. Regions of the Heart A biography of Alison Hargreaves. Clouds from Both Sides. Among The Kara-korum Glaciers. Door de bergwoestijnen van Azie: Karakorum. Women on the Rope. In the Ice World of the Himalaya.
Touching the Void. The Kurt Diemberger Omnibus. Nanda Devi's position was first identified in by Webb during his survey of Kumaon. He determined the height to within 25' his measurement was 25, vs the currently accepted height of 25, When his report went back to Britain, many geographers questioned his results, not believing that there could be a mountain of that height.
In , G. I am not well read in this area, and this is more than a little embarrassing. I have listed below the few books that I have. The Scott book is very highly recommended by anyone who is interested in Canadian climbers, the history of Canadian climbing, or Canadian climbing locations. Nevertheless, this is an area where I need to do a serious amount of reading. Beyond Chic Scott's book , if you are interested in information on climbing in Canada, our National Parks, or outdoor resources, check out Out There for more information. This is an area where the quality of the books that I have is inversely proportional to the quantity.
I have just one treasure, a two volume set, that was a gift from the a friend, Brendan Calder:. As I go along, I seem to be getting more and more books about cartography. I guess it comes with the turf, so to speak:. This section lists the books journals and articles in my collection, sorted by author. Clicking on the title of any entry will take you to the full citation, as well as an annotation, describing the book, along with comments and references that I thought relevant when I read it.
This section lists the periodicals in my collection. Some also appear in the book list for various reasons. Vol: 99 , I 1 ; 3: Vol. Adamec, Ludwig W. Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan , Second Edition. London: The Scarecrow Press. This is a reasonably good resource book on the history of Afghanistan. It is divided into three main sections: a dictionary, a chronology, and a bibliography. The dictionary is good, but not great. Birth and death dates of people are frequently not given, and there are a number of pretty big omissions. For example, there is no entry for Peshawar.
Worth having as a reference, but I still check other sources. Alder, Garry London: Century Publishing. This is the only biography of William Moorcroft, one of the great early explorers of the region north west of India. He traveled widely, ostensibly in search of breeding stock, but this this was clearly more of a pretext than fact.
Moorcroft and Hearsey were the first Englishmen in the area. His next major trip was to Bokhara. He left British territory in , for a trip that would last until Due to civil unrest in Afghanistan, he decided to go via Ladakh and Chinese Turkistan. In , after deciding that permission would never come , he decided to go via Afghanistan, regardless of the civil conflict there.
He died during the return trip. Allen, Charles This is a very good account of the early European exploration of Western Tibet, in the region around Mount Kailas. See also Snelling's, The Sacred Mountain. The book is very well researched, and has references to material that I have not found in as much detail elsewhere. It is also wonderfully illustrated. The narrative is tied together by the stories of the successive attempts to discover the course, and especially the sources, of the four major rivers of the Indian sub-continent: the Indus, Sutlej, Ganges and Brahmaputra.
It traces the discovery that the Tsangpo river in Tibet becomes the Brahmaputra, not the Irrawaddy which had been speculated. In the process, much of the story takes place in Burma, and Central Tibet, as well. While sometimes the book does not flow as well as one would like, it is well worth reading, and includes a fascinating discussion of the controversy surrounding the "discoveries" of Sven Hedin, which alone make the book worth reading.
This book has been re-released in paperback by Abacus books. However, while the original hardcover has fantastic illustrations, nearly all have been eliminated from the paperback volume, at great loss to the reader. This is a must have book, and it is worth getting the hard cover version. Alpine Club Alpine Club Library Catalogue , Vol. London: Heinemann. A significant bibliographic resource on the mountaineering literature. Anderson, J. London: Victor Gollancz. This is the first of two biographies of Bill Tilman.
Annotation to come. Andrews, C. This is a brief article describing an unsanctioned flight over Everest. The official flight plan was filed as, "a high altitude fuel consumption test on a course from Calcutta to Darjeeling and return. In contrast to the flights Fellowes, et. As they had clear weather, the flights resulted in a rich set of imagery. This brief article mentions two flights that were taken by the author on different days, but only discusses his flight on the first. Connochie, accompanied him on the second day's flight.
There is some confusion, however, as to how many planes were on each day's flights, and who was on them. This stems largely from discrpencies between Andrews' article and the interview with another member of the team, Jack Irvine Hall, Given that Irvine was approaching 86 years old when the interview took place, and he was describing events that took place 64 years previously, it is understandable if some of the details are a bit muddled.
Despite that, the interview is well worth reading. Andreyev, Alexandre Inner Asia 3 1 , This is a recent article containing new information on the person whose activities, besides Curzon, may have most led to Younghusband's invasion of Tibet. See the notes on the book by Hemmleb, et al.
Full annotation to come. Anker, Daniel Ed. Eiger: The Vertical Arena.http://police-risk-management.com/order/phone/gynyg-applicazione-per.php
Hell's Quest: 1971
Seattle: The Mountaineers. This is an edited volume of writings and photographs on the Eiger. It is an excellent companion to Harrer's, The White Spider. This is a review of: Kennedy, R. London: Richard Bentley. This is a wonderful editorial on, and portrait of, Dost Mohammed, written right in the middle of the first Anglo-Afghan war.
It provides a lot of insight as to how the British at the time viewed the empire, in general, and Dost Mohammed, in particular. Some of the parallels to today's reporting on Afghan affairs are almost painful. Arnold, Anthony Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion in Perspective. Revised Edition. Stanford, CA. This is an excellent analysis, from the American perspective, of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. It is extremely well researched, and is written in a clear academic style.
This is the second "enlarged" edition, but it was still published before the Soviet withdrawal, much less the collapse of the Soviet Union. Hence, one of the things that I found most fascinating was how accurate his analysis was, even to the point of discussing the possibility that the expense of a protracted occupation could contribute to bankrupting the Soviet Union, and lead to its collapse.
It has a good introductory section, that relies a lot on Gregorian. This is the best single volume that I have read on the topic. See also Bocharov and Margolis. Davenport, Christian. State Repression and the Domestic Democratic Peace. Davis, Gerald F. Social Movements and Organization Theory. Davis, Paul K. Besieged: Great Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo. New York: Oxford University Press, Davis, Steven I. Leadership in Conflict: The Lessons of History. New York: St. De Feyter, Koen. New York: Zed Books, De Fronzo, James. Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements.
Boulder , CO : Westview Press, Demmers , Jolle. Theories of Violent Conflict: An Introduction. DeNardo, James. Power in Numbers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, A formal, mathematical explanation of protest and repression. Deveaux , Mo nique. Gender and Justice in Multicultural Liberal St ate s. Devetak , Ri chard and Christopher W. Diamond, Jared. New York, Viking. Diani, Mario and Ron Eyerman, eds. Studying Collective Action. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, Diani, Mario and Doug McAdam. Dunn, John. Democratization and the Prevention of Conflict. Burlington , VT : Ashgate, Epp, Charles R.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, Falk , Ri chard. Achieving Human Rights. Fein, Helen. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, Ferguson, Niall. New York: Penguin, Fischlin, Daniel and Martha Nandorphy. The Concise Guide to Human Rights. Ford, Franklin L. Political Murder. Fortna , Virginia Page. Does Peacekeeping Work? Fox, Jonathan. Lanham, MD: Lexington, Francisco, Ronald A. The Politics of Regime Transitions. Boulder, CO: Westview, Dynamics of Conflict. New York : Springer Verlag, Collective Action Theory and Empirical Evidence. Franks, C. Dissent and the State. Toronto: Oxford University Press, Fredrickson, George M.
Racism: A Short History. Frohlich, Norman, Joe A. Oppenheimer and Oran R. Political Leadership and Collective Goods. Gandhi, Jennifer. Po litical Institutions under Dictatorship. Gandhi, Mahatma K. Non-violent Resistance. New York: Dover Publications, Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice.
faction 1 Manual
Westport , CT : Praeger Security, Gecan, Michael. New York : Alfred A. Knopf Academic, How Social Movements Matter. Gilliatt, Stephen. Goldhagen , Daniel J. Wash ington , D. Goldstein, Phyllis. New York: Facing History, Goldstone, Jack A. Revolutions: Theoretical, Comparative, and Historical Studies. San Diego : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, A compilation of famous articles and excerpts of books. The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions. State s , Pa rties, and Social Movements. Goodwin, Jeff and James M. Lanham , MD : Rowman and Littlefield, Griffin , James.
On Human Rights. Guevara, Che. Guerrilla Warfare. Wilmington , DE : Scholarly Resources, Gurr, Ted R. Why Men Rebel. The definitive statement of the deprived actor approach to protest. Hall, Harold V. Hamowy, Ronald. Northhampton , MA : Edward Elgar, Hardin, Russell. Collective Action. Hart, Barry, ed. Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies. Hathaway, James C. The Rights of Refugees under International Law. Hawkins, Virgil. Hayner, Priscilla B. London , UK : Routledge, Hechter, Michael. Principles of Group Solidarity. Berkeley : University of California Press, Heller, Steven.
New York : Phaidon Press, Henderson , Sarah and Ala na Jeydel. Hook, Alex. Modern War: Day by Day. Kent , UK : Grange Books, Hossay, Patrick. Hyams, Edward. Killing No Mur der. New York : Thomas Nelson, Ignatieff, Michael. New York : Henry Holt, Iriye , Akira, P. Goode, W. I Hitchcock. The Human Rights Revolution. Ivie, Robert L. Dissent from War. Jacob, Joseph M. Civil Justice in the age of Human Rights.
James, Stephen. Universal Human Rights: Origins and Development. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest. Jenkins, J. Craig and Bert Klandermans, eds. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, Jesse, Neal G. Wash ington , DC : Congressional Quarterly, Johnson, Chalmers. Revolutionary Change. Boston : Little, Brown, A traditional approach with a deceiving modern vocabulary.
Johnston , Hank, ed. Culture, Social Movements and Protest. Jones, Ada m. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Jordan , Tim. Direct Action, Hacktivism and the Future of Society. Chicago : University of C h i c a g o Press, The Face of Human Rights. New York : Lars Muller Publishers, Kahler, Miles and Barbara F. Territoriality and Conflict in the Era of Globalization. Kalyvas, Stathis N. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Kaplan, Lawrence, ed. Revolutions: A Comparative Study. New York : Random House, A somewhat dated sourcebook on many revolutions.
Katz, Mark N. Revolution: International Dimensions. Kean, John. Violence and Democracy. Keddie, Niki R. Debating Revolutions. Kiernan, Ben. Kilcullen, David. Kilcullen , David. Kimenyi, Alexandre and Otis L. Scott, eds. Kimmel, Michael S. Revolution: A Sociological Interpretation. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, Kirkpatrick, Jennet. Klandermans, Bert and Suzanne Staggenborg, eds.
Methods of Social Movement Research. Klein, Renate and Bernard Wallner, eds. Conflict, Gender, Violence. Kolin , Andrew. State Structure and Genocide. Krause, Sharon R. Brighton , UK : Wheatsheaf Books, Kristoph , Nicholas D. Knopf, Kumar, B. Gandhian Protest. Kumar, Krishna , ed.
Lord Byron (George Gordon)
Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea. New York : Modern Library, Kurtz, Lester, ed. San Diego , CA : Elsevier, Laitin, David D. Nations, States and Violence. Landman, Todd. Measuring Human Rights. Latawski, Paul and Matthew Bennett, eds. Exile Armies. Laucella, Linda. New York : Lowell House, Leatherman, Janie et al. LeBon , G. New York : Viking, Lubet , Steven. New York : Intersentia , Levene, Mark and Penny Roberts, eds. The Massacre in History. New York : Berghahn Books, Levene, Mark. Lichbach, Mark I. An excellent, encyclopedic exploration and presentation of solutions of the collective action problem.
Linfield, Susie. Lofland, John. New York : Aldine de Gruyter, Piscataway , NJ : Transaction Publishers, reprint from Long, Austin. Lorey, David E. Beezley, eds. Voices of Protest. Lyons , Lewis. London , UK : Amber, The Timechart History of Revolutions. MacKenzie , S. Majid , Anouar. Minn eapolis : University of M i n n e s o t a Press, Mallinder , Louise. Amnesty, Human Rights and Po litical Transitions. Mares, David R. Marwell , Gerald and Pamela Oliver. Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels.
The Communist Manifesto. Mason, T. Matthews, Richard S. May, Larry. War Crimes and Just War. Dynamics of Contention. Mechanisms replace the political opportunity structure. McCarthy, Ronald M. Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide. New York : Garland Publishing, Mead, David. Oxford , UK : Hart Publishing, Medjouba , Faria , ed. Building Peace in Post- Conflct Situations. Mertus , Julie and Jeffrey W.
Helsing, eds. Herndon , VA : U. Institute of Peace Press, Mertus , Julie. Bloomfield , CT : Kuamarian Press, Midlarksy, Manus I. Minow , Martha, ed. Misra , Amalendu. Moghadam , Va lentine M. Moore , Barrington , Jr. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston : Beacon Press, One of the most important early historical theories of revolution. Moran, Daniel. Wars of National Liberation. London , UK : Cassell, Mors ink , Johannes.
Moser, Caroline O. Clark, eds. Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London : Zed Books, Motyl , Alexander J. New York : Columbia University Press, Murshed , Syed Mansoob. London: Edward Elgar, Mutua , Makau. Nadelson, Theodore. Trained to Kill: Soldiers at War. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, Nagl, John A. Ness , Immanuel, ed. Malden , MA : Wiley-Blackwell, Newman, Edward and Albrecht Schnabel. London , UK : Frank Cass, North, Douglass C. Nyatepe-Coo, Akorlie A. Understanding Terrorism: Threats in an Uncertain World.
Oestreich, Joel E. Olson, Mancur. The Logic of Collective Action. The genesis of the collective action theory. Opp, Karl-Dieter. Boulder , CO : Westview, Packer, George. Parker, David, ed. Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West, Paris, Roland. Parsa, Misagh. Paxton, Robert O. The Anatomy of Fascism. Petra eus, David. Pickerill , Jenny. Cyberprotest : Environmental Activism Online.
Polk , Wi lliam R. Powell, William. The Anarchist Cookbook. New York : Barricade Books, How to do violence. Powers, Roger S. Vogele, eds. Rae, Douglas W. The Analysis of Political Cleavages. Ramcharan, Bertrand G. Contemporary Human Rights Ideas. Ramsbotham , Oliver. Reed, T. Regan, Patrick M. Regan , Pa trick M. Rigby, Andrew. Justice and Reconciliation: After the Violence.
Roberts, Ada m and Timothy Garton Ash, eds. Robinson, Mary. A Voice for Human Rights. Rooney, David. Rosenbaum , Ala n S. Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. Rubenstein , Ri chard L. Jihad and Genocide. The Crowd in History, Rule, James B.
Theories of Civil Violence. An excellent survey of theories of protest through Tilly and Muller. Rummel, R. Power Kills: Democracy as Method of Nonviolence. Ryan, Stephen. The Transformation of Violent Intercommunal Conflict. Sale hyan, Idean. Sanderson, Stephen K. Sandler, Todd. Collective Action: Theory and Applications. Good text, but quite mathematical. Global Col lective Action. Sandole, Dennis J. London , UK : Pinter, Sandole , Dennis J. Handbook of Conflict Analysis and Resolution. Sarkesian , Sam C.
Revolutionary Guerrilla Wa rfare. Schock, Kurt. Schneckener, Ulrich and Stefan Wolff, eds. Schulz , Wi lliam F. The Phenomenon of Torture: Reading s and Commentary. Schutz, Barry M. Slater, eds. Revolution and Change in the Third World. Scott, James C. The Moral Economy of the Peasant. New Haven : Yale University Press, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. Selbin, Eric. Modern Latin American Revolutions. Boulder : Westview, Shaw, Martin.
What is Genocide? Malden , MA : Polity, Shaw, Randy. Protest and Social Movements in the Developing World. Northampton , MA : Edward Elgar, Understanding Internal Wars and Conflicts. Sisk, Timothy D. Skocpol, Theda. States and Social Revolutions. Smelser , Neil. Theory of Col lective Behavior. New York : Free Press, Smith, Kate. The End of Genocide. Westport , CT : Praeger, Smyth, Marie and Gillian Robinson, eds. Starr, Amory. Staub, Ervin.
Stedman, Stephen John, et al. Stenner, Karen. The Authoritarian Dynamic. Sunstein, Cass R. Nussbaum, eds. Young, eds. Bombing Civilians: A 20 th Century History. New York : The New Press, Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement. The New Transnational Activism. Tatz , Col in. With Intent to Destroy: Reflecting on Genocide. New York : Verso, Tilly, Charles. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading , MA : Addison-Wesley, An important work that shifted the focus of research to strategy and mobilization.
European Revolutions, Cambridge , MA : Blackwell, The Politics of Collective Violence. Contentious Performances. Social Movements, Trust and Rule. Tilly, Charles and Sidney Tarrow. Contentious Po litics. Toft, Monica Duffy. Totten, Samuel, ed. Velntino, Benjamin.
Versluis , Arthur. Wall, Derek. London , UK : Pluto Press, Waller, James E. Watson, Bruce Allen. Mechanicsburg , PA : Stackpole Books, Weinstein, Jeremy M. Weissberg, Robert. The Limits of Civic Activism. Wheatcroft, Andrew. The World Atlas of Revolutions. New York : Simon and Schuster, Weitz, Eric D. Wellman, Christopher Heath.
A Theory of Secession. Wessells , Mich ael. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Williams, Robin M. Wintrobe, Ronald. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Zartman , I. Zawati , Hilmi M. Zimmerman, Ekhart. Cambridge , MA : Schenkman, Aar on, David. In their Own Words: Voices of Jihad.
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Abukhalil, Asad. New York : Seven St ories Press, Ackerman, Bruce. Adams, James. The Financing of Terror. Evolution of U. Counterterrorism Policy. Allen, Charles. New York : Da Capo Press, Alison, Miranda. Allison, Graham. New York : Holtzbrinck Publishers, Altheide, David L. Terrorism and the Po litics of Fear. Risk and the War on Terror. Terrorist Hunter. New York : Harper Collins, Hunting al Qaeda.
Pa ul , MN : Zenith Press, Arabinda , Acharya. Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt, eds. Art, Robert J. Democracy and Counterterrorism. Asad, Talal. On Suicide Bombing. Ball, Howard. Banerjee, Dipankar and Gert W. Kueck, eds. South Asia and the War on Terrorism. Banks, William C. Combatting Terrorism: Strategies and Approaches. Bar, Shmuel. Barker, Jonathan.
The No-Nonsense Guide to Terrorism. Barnaby, Frank. Instruments of Terror. London , UK : Vision, Baudrillard, Jean. Bawer, Bruce. New York : Doubleday, Belfield , Ri chard. Bell , J. Assassin: Theory and Practice of Po litical Violence. The Age of Sacred Terror. New York : Times Books, Bergen, Peter L.
Holy War, Inc. New York : Touchstone, Bergen , Peter L. The Osama bin Laden I Know. New York : The Free Press, The Longest War. Berger, Dan. Berlin ksi , Claire. Menace in Europe. New York : Crown Forum, Berman, Eli. Berman, Paul. Terror and Liberalism. New York : Norton, Bianchi, Andrea. Biersteker, Thomas J. Eckert , eds. Countering the Financing of Terrorism.
Chicago : Amal Press,