- Women's Film and Female Experience: 1940-1950 (Book)
- Mrs. America: Women's Roles in the s | American Experience | Official Site | PBS
- Top 10 books about women in the 1950s
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- Womens Film and Female Experience, 1940-1950
Be a man! Thompson early economic Edward Shorter emotional expression fact fathers female feminism feminists functions gender gender roles homosexuality hunting society husband Illegitimacy important increased increasingly interest involved Joan Scott Journal of Social labor less male leisure male role manly marriage married masculinity masturbation men's Men's Liberation middle middle-class modern moral mother nature nineteenth century parents particularly passim patriarchalism patterns personal identification Peter Laslett physical possible protest prowess relationships remains responsibility satisfaction sense sexual skill Social History sons Stearns style suggest tension tion traditional trends twentieth century Victorian Western culture Western society wife wives woman women workers working-class York young youth.
The Tradition of Manhood. Jayamanne, Laleen. Arts and politics of the everyday. A1 J37 Jesionowski, Joyce E.
Thinking in Pictures: Dramatic Structure in D. Griffith's Biograph Films. G76 J4. Kaplan, E.
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M66 K36 Klinger, Barbara. S57 K Kozloff, Sarah. Overhearing Film Dialogue. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, Kreidl, John. Nicholas Ray. Boston: Twayne, A3 R Kuhn, Annette. Women's Pictures: Feminism and Cinema. Paul, Lamster, Frederick. J: Scarecrow Press, A3 B Lang, Robert. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press, M45 L36 Leibman, Nina C.
Texas film studies series. F33 L45 Letter from an Unknown Woman. L L49 Levy, Emanuel.
Women's Film and Female Experience: 1940-1950 (Book)
C8 L48 Lyden, John. Film as Religion: Myths, Morals, Rituals.
MacKinnon, Kenneth. Love, Tears and the Male Spectator. Madison [N. M46 M23 McHugh, Kathleen Anne. W6 M38 Me Jane: Masculinity, Movies and Women. New York: St. Martin's Press, M46 M35 Mercer, John. Melodrama: Genre, Style, Sensibility. M45 M47 Mulvey, Laura.
Douglas Sirk. Naremore, James. The Films of Vincente Minnelli. Cambridge film classics. M56 N37 National Society of Film Critics. Palmer, R. I Z Pearson, Roberta E. P43 Peucker, Brigitte.vipauto93.ru/profiles/iphone/spiare-whatsapp-online.php
Mrs. America: Women's Roles in the s | American Experience | Official Site | PBS
Cultural memory in the present. P46 Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies. Wisconsin studies in film. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, P Ray, Nicholas. However, while Cukor's cinema work embraces a variety of genres, he is probably best remembered for sophisticated comedies like Adam's Rib and Born Yesterday , with their trademark quirky, and very modern, heroines.
Top 10 books about women in the 1950s
Cukor worked with many of Hollywood's finest actresses among them, most memorably, Katharine Hepburn and Judy Holliday and female scriptwriters. This earned him a reputation as a "women's director. Cukor's independent, acerbic, intelligent heroines are never less than interesting, and his films characteristically proffer a kind of feminine angle on the world.
Yet they rarely identify fully with the woman's point of view, nor as a rule do they address themselves exclusively to a female audience. In this regard, Cukor has been likened to the American novelist Henry James. In the s, however, like many other Hollywood directors of the time, Cukor ventured into directing "woman's pictures"—family melodramas with "female-centered" plots, closely addressed to female spectators and audiences.
A Woman's Face , made at MGM, stars Joan Crawford as a nursemaid with a hideously scarred face who is eventually redeemed from a life of bitterness. Gaslight , another MGM film and an example of the paranoid gothic woman's picture, stars Ingrid Bergman as an upper-middle-class Victorian wife whose husband Charles Boyer is methodically driving her insane.
Released in , Cukor's last film, Rich and Famous —he was over eighty when he directed it—is a story of female friendship, featuring Jacqueline Bisset and Candice Bergen as college acquaintances whose difficult relationship survives many years and divergent life choices. As a remake of the Bette Davis -Miriam Hopkins vehicle, Old Acquaintance , the swansong of this veteran "women's director" fittingly pays homage to, and updates, the classic Hollywood woman's picture of the s. Higham, Chalres, and Joel Greenberg.
Chiacgo: Regnery, Levy, Emanuel. New York: Morrow, In contributions to analyzing the internal textual operations of films and to developing methods for interpreting films, some of these critics explored the potential for reading mainstream Hollywood films "against the grain," against the surface meanings they offered, producing interpretations that opened up a space for understanding women's engagements with films that, on the face of it, seemed to reinforce patriarchal attitudes towards women.
Foremost among such films, of course, is the woman's picture, with its fictions of female desire, transgression, punishment, and loss. Could the female-centered narrative viewpoint that marks out the woman's picture, in eliciting identification with the protagonist and sympathy for her plight, undercut the characteristic storyline in which she is restored to her "proper" place? Could the text, at a subtextual or unconscious level,.
In an essay on the relationship between melodrama and the woman's picture, Pam Cook has argued that, in exploring the conflicts faced by women in patriarchy, the woman's picture can never satisfactorily resolve these dilemmas, because it "must first posit the possibility of female desire, and a female point-of-view, thus posing problems for itself which it can scarcely contain" p. Thus, while the woman's picture brings to the fore the possibility of female desire, the conventions of the genre must at the same time seek to contain it.
This conflict, it is then argued, disturbs the text of the woman's picture, which is marked by such "symptoms" as circular rather than linear narrative structure; "impossible" or implausible "resolutions"; multiple points of view; and themes of blindness, mental instability, and suchlike.
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In this sense, the woman's picture came to be considered the limit case of classical cinema under pressure, a point amply demonstrated in Cook's reading of the maternal melodrama Mildred Pierce , which tells the story of a troubled mother-daughter relationship and in whose closing scene the eponymous heroine played by Joan Crawford goes back to her less-than-satisfactory husband. Alongside these advances in thinking on film's form and textual operations, film theorists began to consider what is distinctive about spectatorship in cinema.
Following Christian Metz's exploration of the unconscious aspects of spectatorial engagements with films, Laura Mulvey advanced the concept of a gendered gaze and gendered spectatorship, thereby introducing the conundrum of the possibility of pleasure in cinema for the female spectator.
In her study of "ideological stress" in the classic woman's picture, Doane takes up this idea, distinguishing between the woman's picture's subgenres on the basis of the kind of gaze, or mode of spectatorship, each elicits: in the medical melodrama, she argues, "the woman is most nearly the pure object of the gaze"; the maternal melodrama is marked by voyeurism; the love story by a narcissistic gaze; and the paranoid gothic by the "aggressivity … of the look … directed against" the woman pp.
Doane shows that the woman's picture offers ample scope for drawing on concepts from psychoanalysis in analyzing classical cinema's rhetoric and modes of spectatorial engagement; and in relation more specifically to the woman's picture, her work raises a number of key questions. Does the woman's picture set up a specifically female, or feminine, position for the spectator? Does it provide some space for the free play of female desire, or does it simply document a troubling of patriarchally defined modes of subjectivity centered upon the figure of the woman?
Questions about female spectatorship raised by the woman's picture have wide-ranging implications not only for film theory, but for the historical, social, and cultural study of the medium as well. Above all, they demand a distinction between, on the one hand, the idea of spectatorship as a description of the modes of potentially gendered subjectivity proposed by the operations of the film text—the "spectator-in-the-text"—and on the other, the idea of the social audience for films—the actual people, male and female, who go to the cinema.
It was a woman's picture that prompted a landmark exploration by feminist critics of all these issues: film texts, spectatorship, pleasure, genre, and gender. During the s, the Stella Dallas , arguably the founding text of the classic maternal melodrama, was at the center of an extended debate in which it was suggested, among other things, that no identity can be assumed between a present-day feminist reading of Stella Dallas and the responses of female audiences in the s. The debate foundered at the point at which this question of the social audience—and specifically the historical audience, the women who saw Stella Dallas in the s—was raised, and this issue remained unresolved.
The Stella Dallas debate thus prefigured a key problem facing film theory: the question of the function, and the address, of popular culture—specifically of genres within mainstream cinema—in relation to audiences, both past and present, male and female. What is the relationship.
Womens Film and Female Experience, 1940-1950
How does the woman in the cinema audience, as a social subject, negotiate meanings proposed in the rhetoric of the film text? In its time, the Hollywood woman's picture was deliberately targeted at female audiences, and not just in terms of the films' "female-centered" subject matter and address. In fact, as Maria LaPlace contends, the textual attributes of the woman's picture draw on a wider women's culture, linking women's consumption of commodities with the commodification inherent in the star system.
This, she argues, created a symbolic system in which women could try to make sense of their lives and perhaps even create imaginative space for resistance. Thinking about the woman's picture as a genre, in other words, calls for conceptualizing films—texts—as nodes in a whole network of cultural phenomena that may include, for example, women's popular fiction, Hollywood studios' production practices such as, say, scriptwriting , and the Hollywood star system, through to broader cultures of consumerism and femininity. The distinctive features of the woman's picture as a Hollywood genre of a certain period are shaped through its combination of historically-specific textual, intertextual and contextual attributes.